As most manufacturing businesses can attest, data collection is one of the key principles of operating an efficient, productive operation. Having the ability to track and manage production data can significantly impact a business's ability to operate and grow within a given industry and can mean the difference between thriving in the marketplace and going out of business.
While there are countless metrics and KPIs to keep track of, Takt Time, Cycle Time, and Lead Time are some of the most commonly measured across most discrete manufacturing facilities.
In this post, we'll look at how each of these metrics are used by manufacturers to track and measure productivity within their facilities.
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Defining Takt Time, Cycle Time, and Lead Time
The terms Cycle Time, Lead Time, and Takt Time are often interchangeably used in manufacturing.
However, there are clear differences in what each of these measures and how they are calculated. Understanding how each of these is used can optimize the workflow, resources, and work time in operations.
Cycle Time, Lead Time, and Takt Time are all approaches to lean manufacturing, a way to measure the efficiency and quality of products and reduce unnecessary disruptions and processes.
An Overview of Takt Time
Takt Time Definition
Takt Time in German means rhythm. It is the steady ‘beat’ that production must follow to satisfy the demands of the customer.
Takt time is the rate at which manufacturing processes and systems need to complete the production in order to meet the customer's request. Therefore, this is less of measuring the total time it takes to complete a segment or the entirety of the production.
Takt time measures the pace at which work must be done to deliver what has been promised. Takt time can be measured manually or can be automated with takt time solutions.
How to Calculate Takt Time
Takt Time can be calculated with the amount of time available until product delivery and the required number of production quotas the customer has requested.
Takt Time Example
Suppose you have 30 weekdays available for production, and the customer has requested 120 units. Assuming that production runs 8 hours a day:
This calculation shows that you have to produce one unit every 2 hours to meet your customer's demands.
An Overview of Cycle Time
Cycle Time Definition
Cycle Time is the amount of time a team spends actually working on producing an item, up until the product is ready for shipment. It is the time it takes to complete one task. This includes time spent producing the item and the wait stages (amount of time the task is left ‘waiting’ on the board) between active work times.
Cycle time is what most people conventionally think of when they mistakenly use “lead time” and “takt time” interchangeably.
Cycle Time is one of the key KPIs in manufacturing. ERP and MES systems use cycle time to schedule, purchase, and budget production.
How to Calculate Cycle Time
Cycle Time is also an important part of calculating the OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness). Therefore, understanding Cycle Time is the first step to accurately measuring how well a manufacturing operation is utilized.
You need two numbers to calculate Cycle Time. The total 𝑥 number of goods produced, and the total time it took to produce the 𝑥 number of goods.
An Overview of Lead Time
Lead Time Definition
Lead time is the time measured from the moment a client puts in an order to when the final product gets delivered.
This can be easily understood by thinking of the total time it takes for the client to receive the product from the moment they put in the order to the moment they receive the shipment.
Lead Time is Cycle Time plus the additional amount of time it takes for production to begin and the time it takes to deliver the finished product.
How to Calculate Lead Time
To calculate the Lead Time, you only need to know the time/date the order was received and the time/date the client received the requested order. It is the time from order to dispatch.
Lead Time Example
Suppose your client has put in an order on June 1st, and you delivered the final product on July 1st.
All the time spent in between these 30 days — order processing, manufacturing, labeling, and shipping — is included when calculating the Lead Time. Therefore, both cycle time and other processing times need to be cut down to shorten lead time.
Comparing Cycle Time vs. Lead Time vs. Takt Time
Benefits of Calculating Each of the Production Measures
|Cycle Time||Lead Time||Takt Time|
Difference Between Cycle Time and Lead Time
The easiest way to understand the differences between Cycle and Lead Time is that Cycle Time is a part of the total Lead Time. Cycle Time only measures the production rate of the manufacturing process, while Lead Time includes all operational processes leading up to and after the manufacturing stage.
Lead Time is measured from the customer’s perspective, whereas Cycle Time is measured from the internal process point of view.
Difference Between Cycle Time and Takt Time
Cycle Time is what the manufacturing ‘can do,’ whereas Takt Time is what it ‘needs to do.’ These two numbers can be used to understand whether production can meet the demands of the customer, given that additional processing times during Lead Time will remain constant for all Cycle Time rates.
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